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Moog® Minimoog

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Developed in partnership with Moog Music, the Minimoog LUNA Instrument is an incredibly accurate and inspiring emulation of Bob Moog's pioneering synthesizer.

By perfectly capturing every nuance of the classic Moog oscillators and ladder filters and harnessing discrete transistor VCA modeling, the Minimoog LUNA Instrument faithfully captures every detail of this classic instrument used by everyone from Parliament-Funkadelic, to Kraftwerk, Dr. Dre, and more.

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About the original hardware

Produced by Moog Music from 1970 through 1981, the Minimoog Model D was the first synthesizer designed specifically for popular music. Before the introduction of the Minimoog, synthesizers were primarily modular systems that were very large and extraordinarily expensive. This meant that synthesizers were usually confined to academic environments like universities or in the studios of record labels and advertising agencies. They were beyond the reach of average musicians.

The Minimoog was a radically new type of instrument that changed the way the world viewed synthesizers. It was portable (at “only” 32 lbs. / 14.5 kg it was considered lightweight for its time), it was non-modular and did not include a patchbay, and it cost only a fraction of existing large modular systems. This made it a viable, exciting option for gigging musicians with limited budgets.

Beyond these primary factors, the Minimoog also became a commercial success because of its expressiveness in live performance. It was the first keyboard to feature the now-familiar pitch and modulation wheels, giving players the ability to play the pitch bends and vibrato commonly heard in guitar and saxophone solos. Furthermore, its sounds could be changed quickly letting players easily recall different sounds in the age before stored presets.

Finally, it is impossible to discuss the Minimoog without mentioning its wonderfully “fat” sound. This was the result of the patented Moog ladder filter with three oscillators, various nonlinearities in the signal and control paths, and a tuning system that wasn’t perfectly stable. While the nonlinearities and instability were not deliberately designed-in as features by Moog (it can be argued that these were technical shortcomings), they nevertheless happened to produce highly desirable sonic qualities including the fat sound and the fantastic self-oscillating filter sweep. 

This combination of features gave the Minimoog an unbeatable edge over virtually all competing synthesizers during its decade-long production run. Even now, vintage Minimoogs continue to fetch incredible prices on the used market — a testament to the desirability of the instrument.

Fun fact: Although it was called the Minimoog Model D, this was the only instrument that was actually put into production. Model A, Model B and Model C were prototypes created by Moog Music and were not produced in quantity.

Universal Audio’s approach to Minimoog

No expense was spared in the creation of the Universal Audio Minimoog. Two years of painstaking research and craftsmanship went into understanding every detail of the signal path, pitch tracking and control sources of the original hardware.

Vintage analog synthesizers — particularly units that are approaching 50 years old — can sound different from unit to unit. This is because the circuits will have aged under different environmental conditions. As a result, it is impossible to select one “golden” unit that definitively represents the entire line of instruments. To ensure that nothing was missed during development, the Universal Audio team sourced and studied not one but three vintage Minimoog synthesizers. Each of these units was carefully measured and analyzed to ensure the entire range of the original hardware is present in the virtual instrument.

Note that we were not content to simply make a perfect replica of the original hardware and consider it done. Once sonic fidelity was achieved, the Universal Audio team pushed on and added a small number of useful extras such as an extra LFO/Sample & Hold circuit, switchable note priority and legato, velocity sensitivity, and more. Great care was taken to do this tastefully and all these features are “period correct” (i.e., original Minimoog units were sometimes modified to include these modifications). These new features are included for modern music makers that may find them useful, but can easily be bypassed by players wanting a 100% vintage playing experience. 

In the end, we feel our Minimoog delivers on its promise to give you the authentic sound and experience of playing the glorious original instrument. If you need a classic synth that is found on countless hit records, but is versatile enough to sound brand new, there is no better choice.

The original hardware and the UA instrument

You may notice small visual differences between the hardware Minimoog and the software instrument. Some of these changes are purely functional (for example, there is no need for the headphone jack and volume in the plug-in since this is handled by LUNA and/or your audio interface). Other changes are included because they greatly expand the functionality of the original hardware. These additions are primarily found in the Modifications panel below the main set of controls. 

The following features, in the Modifications panel at the bottom of the window, are the differences between the original hardware instrument and our software instrument:

  • Extra LFO/Sample & Hold with tempo sync
  • Switchable note priority (lowest or last played)
  • Switchable legato or re-trigger option
  • Modulation Source Selection
  • Modulation Amount Knob
  • Pitch Bend Range
  • Velocity sensitivity for volume, filter cutoff, and filter envelope amount

Quick Start

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Before we dive into the details, let’s take Minimoog for a quick test drive. After the LUNA Instrument is loaded and the track is Input-enabled (see LUNA’s application documentation for these instructions):

  1. Click the Presets button at the top of the instrument to reveal Minimoog’s available presets in LUNA’s contextual browser (at the left of LUNA’s screen).
  2. Click any of the available presets while playing your MIDI controller. You should hear the sound of each preset as you step through the names. 
  3. When you have found a preset that you like, keep playing while rotating the CUTOFF  FREQUENCY and EMPHASIS knobs (in the FILTER section) to hear the effect of the filter on your sound.
  4. Next, try rotating the RANGE and WAVEFORM knobs in the OSCILLATOR BANK section to hear the various kinds of sounds the oscillators are capable of producing. 
  5. You can re-balance the mix of the oscillators by rotating the VOLUME knobs and flipping the ON/OFF rocker switches in the MIXER section.
  6. Play a repeating pattern of notes while changing the GLIDE knob to hear the portamento between the notes (make sure the switch below the knob is set to ON).
  7. Finally, try adjusting the ATTACK TIME, DECAY TIME and SUSTAIN LEVEL knobs in the LOUDNESS CONTOUR section while you play. You should hear changes in the volume envelope of the sound.

This barely scratches the surface of what Minimoog can do, but we hope it gives you an idea of the capabilities of this amazing instrument! Read on to learn about all the sections of this synthesizer and how they work together.

 

Overview

Like the original Minimoog Model D hardware, all of the controls of the software are visible at a glance and the software instrument does not feature any tabs or sub-menus. The flow of audio and control signals is generally (but not always) from left-to-right. White vertical lines, color-coded switches and clear labeling help break down the controls into logical groups.

Minimoog is a self-contained monophonic analog synthesizer, and the direct descendant of the Moog modular synthesizers that preceded it. The main synthesizer components include:

  • Oscillator 1
  • Oscillator 2
  • Oscillator 3
  • Noise Generator
  • Audio Mixer
  • Moog Ladder Filter
  • Loudness Contour (Envelope Generator)
  • Filter Contour (Envelope Generator)
  • Glide (Portamento)
  • Modifications (software only):
    • Velocity Sensitivity
    • LFO Modulation Oscillator
    • Sample & Hold
    • Modulation Mixer

The front panel groups these elements and controls together by type: CONTROLLERS, OSCILLATOR BANK, MIXER, MODIFIERS, OUTPUT, and MODIFICATIONS in an intuitive and efficient design. All of these elements are controlled via single-function knobs and switches. In place of patch cables, the Minimoog uses color-coded switches to establish connections between the various circuits contained in the synthesizer.

  • Orange: Connect modulation sources to their destinations.
  • Blue: Switch audio sources On and Off.
  • Grey: Switches performance features On and Off.
  • Small 2 or 3-position silver bat-handle switches for adjusting various settings (Modifications panel)

Main Panel

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Like the original Minimoog, all of the controls of the software are visible at a glance and this plug-in does not feature any tabs or sub-menus. The flow of audio and control signals is generally (but not always) from left-to-right. White vertical lines and clear labeling help break down the controls into logical groups.

Oscillator Bank

Oscillators are the primary source of sound in an analog synthesizer. The OSCILLATOR BANK contains three nearly identical Oscillators. This arrangement means each key can sound up to three oscillators — each with its own Waveform, Octave, and Pitch setting — creating a deep or complex sound. The Mixer then controls the balance between the Oscillators.

minimoog-oscillator-panel.png

 

 

Range (Oscillator 1, 2, and 3)

This knob selects the fundamental octave for each oscillator over a five octave range. A sixth LO setting brings the pitch down even further, allowing the Oscillator to be used for other purposes, such as a modulation source.

Frequency (Oscillator 2 and 3)

Oscillator 2 and Oscillator 3 are each equipped with a FREQUENCY knob that can be used to detune the Oscillator. Slight amounts of detuning can create a rich, chorusing effect. Tuning the Oscillators to an interval (Perfect Fifth above, Perfect Fourth below, etc.) provides a powerful voice for playing lead passages or creating chords.

Waveform (Oscillator 1, 2 and 3)

Each of the three Oscillators provides six distinct Waveform shapes. Each waveform has a unique harmonic content that is based on the number and strength of harmonic overtones that it contains. These overtones are what impart a particular timbre to the Oscillator and are described in the next section of this guide.

Osc. 3 Control (Oscillator 3 only)

Oscillator 3 is unique. Normally, all Oscillators are controlled directly from your keyboard and/or its Pitch wheel. Setting the orange rocker switch to OFF releases OSCILLATOR 3 from MIDI control allowing it to run free as a fixed pitch or modulation source.

Oscillator Modulation

When this switch is set to ON, the Oscillators can be modulated by Oscillator 3, Filter Contour, Noise source, LFO (Low Frequency Oscillator), and Sample & Hold module. The source of the modulation signal is defined by the MODULATION MIX SOURCES switches, the blend of the modulation sources is set by the MODULATION MIX knob, and/or the amount is set by the Modulation Wheel of your MIDI controller.

About the Oscillator Waveforms

One of the reasons why the Minimoog can produce such a rich variety of sounds is its selection of available waveforms:

TRIANGLE

The Triangle wave has an extremely strong fundamental, yet contains only odd-numbered harmonics at very low levels. This makes the Triangle wave an ideal choice for creating soft, flute-like sounds that have a pure tone with little overtone activity.

TRIANGLE/SAWTOOTH (OSCILLATOR 1 AND OSCILLATOR 2 ONLY)

This waveform is a hybrid of the Triangle and the Sawtooth waveforms. It contains more harmonic energy than the Triangle wave and adds in some of the even-numbered harmonics, but it is not nearly as brash as the Sawtooth wave. This hybrid waveform can add a little more edge than the Triangle wave alone, allowing it to cut through the mix with a bit more clarity.

REVERSE SAWTOOTH (OSCILLATOR 3 ONLY)

The Reverse Sawtooth has a sound similar to the regular Sawtooth wave; it is included here primarily as a waveform choice when using Oscillator 3 as a modulation source.

SAWTOOTH

The Sawtooth waveform is the most harmonically dense of the waveforms, containing all of the natural harmonics in relatively strong levels. In addition to creating thick, brassy sounds, the Sawtooth waveform lends itself to powerful lead and bass sounds as well.

PULSE 1 / SQUARE

The harmonic content of a Pulse wave is based on the width of the top half of the wave in relation to the bottom half of the wave, also known as the duty-cycle. In the Square wave, the width of these two portions of the wave are equal. As with the Triangle wave, the Pulse 1 / Square waveform contains only odd-numbered harmonics, but with greater energy. A Square wave provides a rich starting point for string-like sounds, or clarinet-like timbres.

PULSE 2 / WIDE RECTANGLE

As the Pulse wave changes from Square to Rectangular, even numbered harmonics are introduced, but the overall harmonic mix is changed. The wide rectangle forms the basis for hollow, reedy sounds.

PULSE 3 / NARROW RECTANGLE

As the Pulse wave continues to get narrower, lower numbered harmonics—both odd and even—are emphasized. The resulting timbre takes on a more nasal tone.

Tip: Mixing a Triangle wave from one Oscillator with the more complex wave of another Oscillator allows you to emphasize one particular harmonic without adding unwanted overtones. Changing the relative tuning of the Triangle wave Oscillator can enhance this effect.

Controllers

This section contains controls relating to tuning and how the note and modulation wheel inputs from your MIDI controller are handled within Minimoog.

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Tune

The overall tuning of all oscillators is determined by the master TUNE knob, located at the top of the CONTROLLERS panel.

Tip: For greater precision when tuning oscillators, hold the Shift key while dragging the Tune (all Oscillators) or Frequency (Oscillator 2 and 3) knobs. If you find it difficult to hold the Shift key while playing a note, consider using the ARP plug-in while with its LATCH mode engaged or playing back existing MIDI notes from within LUNA.

Glide Knob

Minimoog’s Glide function controls portamento and allows the pitch to change in a smooth, continuous manner as you transition from note to note, rather than instantly stepping to the new pitch. Low settings will transition quickly whereas high settings will transition more slowly.

Note: Like the original hardware, the glide functionality is proportional and is not time-constant. This means that the knob sets the rate at which transition takes place but not the length of time. In other words, an octave interval will take 12 times longer to complete than a smaller interval.

Glide Switch

This switch engages and disengages the Glide effect described above. This can be handy when you want to switch the glide function on and off without changing a glide knob setting that you have carefully dialed in.

Modulation Mix

This knob sets the balance between the modulation sources A and B. These sources are set using the MODULATION MIX SOURCES switches in the Modifications Panel. 

  • With the MODULATION MIX knob rotated fully counterclockwise, only the modulation source selected by the OSC 3 / ENV. 2 switch is applied. 

  • With the MODULATION MIX knob rotated fully clockwise, only the modulation source selected by the NOISE/S&H/LFO switch is applied. 

  • In the center position, modulation sources A and B are mixed together and applied equally. 

Note: The Modulation Mix knob varies from the original hardware in that you can select the source of the incoming control signals. The original instrument had hardwired sources that could not be changed (OSC 3 to Source A and Noise to Source B).

Mixer

The MIXER combines the output of the three oscillators, an external input (or Minimoog’s own output), and a noise source before passing it on to the Filter.

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Volume Knobs and On/Off Switches 

These five knobs set the loudness level for each input of the mixer (Oscillators 1-3, the External Input and the Noise source). Each mixer source has its own dedicated Volume knob and an On/Off switch. These blue rocker switches allow any source to be quickly removed from the mix while preserving its VOLUME knob position. 

Tip: The On/Off switches can be useful when setting the tuning of each Oscillator.

External Input Volume Knob & Switch

When the INPUT switch is set to FEEDBACK (the default setting) and the EXTERNAL INPUT VOLUME switch is set to ON, you can route the output of the Minimoog back into its mixer using this knob to create a thicker, more overdriven (or heavily distorted) sound.

Note: The INPUT switch (in Modifications panel) must be set to FEEDBACK (its default Down position), and the External Input Switch (to the left of its knob) must be ON to hear the effect.

Caution: If the INPUT switch (on the Modifications panel) is set to FEEDBACK and both the EXTERNAL INPUT VOLUME and MAIN OUTPUT VOLUME knobs are turned all the way up, it is possible to overload the mixer to the point that only one sound is heard and playing different pitches does not alter the sound at all. This will not damage your audio interface, but please take steps to protect your hearing and also your speakers from these potentially loud sounds.

Overload Indicator

It is possible to push the mixer into varying levels of overdrive and distortion by turning up the EXTERNAL INPUT VOLUME knob. When this occurs, the Overload indicator lamp will light. 

Note: The External Input is sourced after the Main Output knob in the signal flow. This means that the MAIN OUTPUT VOLUME knob will affect the amount of overload in addition to the EXTERNAL INPUT VOLUME knob.

White / Pink Switch (Noise Type)

Noise can be a very desirable sound source. It can be used alone, or mixed in with other sources to create anything from a rocket launch to the subtle breath of a flute sound. This switch works in conjunction with the NOISE VOLUME knob and selects either WHITE or PINK noise. 

About White and Pink Noise

White Noise contains all audible frequencies at equal amplitude levels, much like white light. Pink Noise contains equal energy in each band of the audio spectrum, and is perceived as having more low-frequency components.

Modifiers

The MODIFIERS Panel contains three separate sections: FILTER, FILTER CONTOUR, and LOUDNESS CONTOUR.

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The Filter selectively modifies the harmonic content of the sound. The Contour controls (also known as Envelope Generators), provide a control signal that changes over time. The FILTER CONTOUR controls the filter’s Cutoff Frequency over time. The LOUDNESS CONTOUR controls the output volume level (amplitude) over time.

About Contour Controls

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Contour controls (sometimes known as Envelope Generators) provide a way to add shape and articulation to the sound of the synthesizer. Minimoog features two sets of Contour controls. One set provides a signal to change the Filter Cutoff Frequency over time. The second set provides a signal to change the Loudness (amplitude) over time. In both cases, the Contour contains three main controls: ATTACK TIME, DECAY TIME, and SUSTAIN LEVEL. These controls are detailed below.

Filter Controls

Cutoff Frequency

Minimoog has the traditional Moog Ladder Filter with 10 Hz – 32 kHz frequency response. This is a critical component of its thick, punchy, and powerful sound. When a note is played, harmonic content above the filter Cutoff Frequency is attenuated by the filter at 24 dB/Octave. Harmonic content, or sound, below the filter Cutoff Frequency will freely pass unaffected. When “closing” the filter by lowering the CUTOFF FREQUENCY, the sound will be perceived as being darker, while increasing the Filter’s CUTOFF FREQUENCY will create a progressively brighter sound.

While the Cutoff Frequency can be set manually using the CUTOFF FREQUENCY knob, the value is also affected by the KEYBOARD CONTROL switches, FILTER MODULATION switch, FILTER CONTOUR controls, and the AMOUNT OF CONTOUR knob, which are discussed below. 

Emphasis

Often referred to as resonance, the EMPHASIS knob creates a resonant peak that occurs at the filter’s Cutoff Frequency. By turning the EMPHASIS control up and lowering the Filter CUTOFF FREQUENCY, the Filter can be coaxed into a self-oscillating state, acting as a sine-wave oscillator whose pitch can be controlled or played via the keyboard by using the KEYBOARD CONTROL switches defined below. 

Amount of Contour

The AMOUNT OF CONTOUR knob determines how much of the control signal created by the FILTER CONTOUR envelope generator will be applied to change the FILTER CUTOFF over time.

Attack Time

The ATTACK TIME knob sets the time required for the Filter Contour Generator to raise the Filter’s Cutoff Frequency from its manual setting to its maximum level (determined by the AMOUNT OF CONTOUR knob) once a key is pressed or after a gate is received.

Decay Time

The DECAY TIME knob sets the time required for the Filter envelope to lower the Filter’s Cutoff Frequency achieved by the Attack stage to the Sustain Level. This knob can also control the amount of time required for the note to completely fade out after a key is released (or after an external gate signal ends). This second function of the DECAY TIME knob is activated by the DECAY switch.

Sustain Level

After the Attack and Decay stages have been completed, the Filter Contour Generator will hold the Filter’s Cutoff Frequency at the level determined by the SUSTAIN LEVEL knob for as long as a note is held.

Filter Modulation Switch

When this switch is set to ON, the Filter Cutoff Frequency can be modulated by the mod wheel of your MIDI Controller. The modulation source is defined by the MODULATION MIX SOURCES switches in the Modifications panel and the MODULATION MIX knob in the Controllers panel. 

Keyboard Control Switches (1 & 2)

These two switches allow incoming notes to affect the Filter Cutoff Frequency, a function also known as key tracking. This allows notes played higher on the keyboard to have a brighter sound; as the keyboard pitch increases, the filter is opened by the control signal from the keyboard pitch by the fixed proportion allowed by the switch. Note that if you don’t use keyboard tracking, your timbre will get duller as the pitch frequency played rises, as the filter’s cut-off frequency won’t alter with the pitch. The upper switch provides 1/3 of the total amount of available key tracking. The lower switch provides 2/3 of the total amount of available key tracking. By using both switches together, the full amount of available key tracking (1/3 + 2/3 = 1) is applied, and the timbre of played notes remains consistent throughout the keyboard range.


Attack Time

The ATTACK TIME knob sets the time required for the Loudness Contour Generator to raise the Volume from zero to its maximum level once a key is pressed or after a gate is received.

Decay Time

The DECAY TIME knob sets the time required for the Loudness Contour Generator to lower the Volume from its maximum level achieved by the Attack stage to the Sustain Level. The DECAY TIME knob can also control the amount of time required for the note to completely fade out after a key is released (or after an external gate signal ends). This second function of the DECAY TIME knob is activated by the DECAY switch.

Sustain Level

After the Attack and Decay stages have been completed, the Loudness Contour Generator will maintain the Volume level determined by the SUSTAIN LEVEL knob for as long as a note is held.

Decay Switch

When the DECAY switch is OFF, the release stage is extremely short when a key is released. However, when the DECAY switch is ON and a key is released, the last note played will continue to sound, and both its filter and loudness contours decay at the rate set with the DECAY TIME knob.

Note: This switch applies to both contour envelopes (loudness and filter).

Output Section

Volume

This knob sets the master output volume of Minimoog.

Power

This switch powers Minimoog on and off. The indicator lamp directly above the switch is lit when Minimoog is ON.

Modifications Panel

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The Modifications panel contains a number of features that greatly expand the sound design functionality and expressivity of the Minimoog. 

Bend Range

Adjusts the range of the pitch wheel from ±1 to ±12 semitones. The markings indicate each semitone and some of the popular ranges (1, 2, 7, 12) are indicated numerically for rapid adjustment.

Tip: A setting of 7 provides the authentic pitch bend range of the original Minimoog Model D hardware.

Modulation Amount

This knob provides a convenient way to store mod wheel values in a preset. If a MIDI controller is not connected, you can use this knob as the mod wheel instead. You can use this knob and your MIDI controller's mod wheel at the same time as they are both active.

Note: The MODULATION AMOUNT knob cannot exceed the Minimoog's maximum modulation amount.

Modulation Mix Sources

These switches determine the source of Modulation A (left) and Modulation B (right). Modulation A can be sourced from either OSCILLATOR 3 or ENVELOPE 2. Modulation B can be sourced from NOISE, SAMPLE & HOLD, or LFO. Your selection here determines what modulation is presented at the MODULATION MIX knob in the CONTROLLERS section.

LFO

A highly desired modification on the original Minimoog Model D hardware was the addition of a dedicated LFO. This allowed players to use OSCILLATOR 3 for sound generation while still having an LFO to aid with sound design or expression (especially vibrato). The Modifications panel includes this “extra” LFO. 

The LFO waveshape switch lets you select from TRIANGLE and SQUARE. The SYNC switch lets you synchronize the LFO to the tempo of your session. The FREQUENCY knob sets the speed of the LFO. Note that when SYNC is set to OFF, the range is from 0.05 Hz – 200 Hz. When Tempo Sync is switched ON the FREQ. knob ranges from 1/64 Note (minimum setting) to Whole Note (maximum setting). 

Key Mode

Minimoog is a monophonic instrument and plays one note at a time. There are 2 options for behaviors having to do with note triggering.

LOWEST/LAST Switch – Determines which note has priority when multiple MIDI notes are received. The LOWEST setting gives priority to the lowest note being received (this is how the Minimoog Model D hardware operated). The LAST setting gives priority to the last note played.

LEGATO/RETRIG Switch – Determines whether the filter envelope will be retriggered when playing legato, which in the case of the Minimoog, refers to holding down one note while playing another. The original hardware default is LEGATO. 

Input

This switch selects the input source of the EXTERNAL INPUT VOLUME in the MIXER module. When set to FEEDBACK, the master output of Minimoog (after the VOLUME knob) is brought back into the instrument at the mixer. When set to “EXTERNAL”, Minimoog can process audio received from an Apollo input. The EXTERNAL input feature is not fully functional.

About the feedback loop

Users of the original Minimoog Model D hardware discovered that connecting one of the outputs (the hardware had two outputs) to the external input with a short audio cable would often result in very interesting tones due to the feedback loop that was created. This became a popular “hack” to the original hardware and many users had switches installed to let them create the feedback loop whenever desired without requiring a cable.

Velocity

The Minimoog LUNA Instrument features something that the original Minimoog Model D hardware was never able to do: allow MIDI velocity to be used as a control signal. Note velocity data can be mapped to FREQUENCY CUTOFF, FILTER CONTOUR, or LOUDNESS parameters using the corresponding knobs in the MODIFICATIONS panel. Setting these knobs to 0 means that velocity sensitivity is ignored (like the original hardware). Rotating the knobs clockwise increases the effect of velocity on each knob’s associated destination. 

Tip: Keep in mind that these controls are also interactive with whatever they’re controlling, and that the settings of other control signals can affect the result. A good example is filter cut-off. When using velocity to control filter cut-off when you may have the filter envelope in play, you may want to adjust the filter to be more closed when starting (or temporarily lower your filter envelope level), find the appropriate level of velocity control for the filter, and then move the filter cut-off or other controls to their final desired positions.

Performance Tips & Techniques

Even with its simple control panel, Minimoog remains a deep and versatile instrument for audio synthesis. Here are just a few examples of how the Minimoog can be used in interesting and perhaps unexpected ways.

Creating FM effects

When we think of Modulation, we are often thinking about slow cyclic change in pitch, filter brightness, etc. but these changes do not need to happen slowly. Minimoog allows one audio oscillator to modulate another at audio rates, creating interesting Frequency Modulation effects.

  1. Set OSCILLATOR 1 to the 16’ or 8’ Range.
  2. Set OSCILLATOR 3 to the 16’ or 8’ Range.
  3. Isolate OSCILLATOR 3 from keyboard control by setting the orange OSC.3 CONTROL switch to OFF.
  4. In the Modifications panel, set the OSC. 3/ENV. 2. switch to OSC.3
  5. In the Controls panel, rotate the MODULATION MIX section fully counterclockwise.
  6. In the Mixer panel, switch all audio inputs OFF except for OSCILLATOR 1. Ensure that the VOLUME knob for the first oscillator is turned up. 
  7. Hold any note on your MIDI controller and use the MODULATION wheel to apply Frequency Modulation! The FM effect can be controlled by the position of the Modulation Wheel, as well as the Range, Frequency, and Waveform settings of OSCILLATOR 3.

Creative Switching

With a little forethought, the blue and orange rocker switches on the Minimoog can be used to quickly introduce new elements to your performance. For example, by tuning OSCILLATOR 2 and OSCILLATOR 3 to specific intervals in regards to OSCILLATOR 1, extra harmonies or chords can be added to your performance as you play.

  1. Tune OSCILLATOR 2 to a Fifth (5) above OSCILLATOR 1.
  2. Tune OSCILLATOR 3 to a Fourth (-4) below OSCILLATOR 1 (be sure that the orange OSC. CONTROL rocker switch is ON).
  3. In the MIXER panel, use the blue rocker switches to switch OSCILLATOR 1 ON, and OSCILLATOR 2 and OSCILLATOR 3 OFF.
  4. Now, as you play a lead, you can use the blue OSCILLATOR 2 and OSCILLATOR 3 rocker switches to instantly add a parallel harmony voice.

Tip: Many of the Minimoog controls can be automated through LUNA and/or MIDI CC messages.

Automation

Minimoog has powerful automation features that can be used with LUNA. Having access to automation, MIDI CC control can make life easier when composing or performing (for example, changing parameters “on the fly” from your MIDI controller without having to use a mouse). It can also open up creative sound design possibilities during a mix.

Controllers Section

Parameter

MIDI CC Number

Tune

N/A

Glide

5

Glide On/Off

65

Modulation Mix

N/A

 

Oscillator Bank Section

Parameter

MIDI CC Number

OSC 1 Range

33

OSC 1 Waveform

26

OSC 2 Range

34

OSC 2 Tune

39

OSC 2 Waveform

27

OSC 3 Range

35

OSC 3 Tune

40

OSC 3 Waveform

28

OSC 3 Control On

N/A

 

Mixer Section

Parameter

MIDI CC Number

OSC 1 Volume

85

OSC 1 On/Off

N/A

OSC 2 Volume

86

OSC 2 On/Off

N/A

OSC 3 Volume

87

OSC 3 On/Off

N/A

External Input Volume

70

External Input On/Off

N/A

Noise Volume

89

Noise On/Off

N/A

Noise Pink/White

29


Modifiers Section

Parameter

MIDI CC Number

Filter Modulation On/Off

N/A

Filter Cutoff Frequency

74

Filter Emphasis

71

Filter Contour

25

Filter Keyboard 1/3 Switch

N/A

Filter Keyboard 2/3 Switch

N/A

Filter Attack Time

22

Filter Decay Time

23

Filter Sustain Level

N/A

Loudness Contour Attack Time

73

Loudness Contour Decay Time

75

Loudness Contour Sustain Level

N/A

Decay On/Off

72

 

Output Section

Parameter

MIDI CC Number

Volume

N/A

 

Modifications Panel

Parameter

MIDI CC Number

Modulation Amount

N/A

Tempo Sync

N/A

LFO Rate

76

LFO Waveform (Square / Triangle)

N/A

 

 

 

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